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Contrastive Study of Sentence Structure Between English and Buginese


    Nec.com -This research is about contrastive study of sentence structure between English and Buginese. The problem statements of this research are: (1) How are the forms of sentence structure in English and Buginese? and (2) What are the differences between sentence structure in English and Buginese?.  The method used is the library method and the technique is descriptive analysis. It aims to provide a real description of the syntactic forms of both languages. This research is intended: (1) To know the sentence structure in English and Buginese and (2) To know the differences of English and Buginese sentence structure. The research begins to discuss the large to the small part; syntax to word, in order to know the sentence elements in general and to be able to recognize the sentence patterns of English and Buginese. The result of this research has shown that there are differences between sentence structure in English and Buginese, such as: (1) the forms of the subject and predicate position in English differ from Buginese, (2) in helping predicate of English is known as verb while in Buginese does not own it, (3) the verb of English sentence will change because of the tenses and there is no changing verb in Buginese, and (4) subject verb agreement only applies in English sentence.

    A.       Background

    In simply, language can be interpreted as a tool to convey something in mind. However, the other meaning of language is communication system in speech and writing used by people in particular country that contains sounds and words to build relationships.[1] It is very important because a human can interact with others by using spoken, sign, and written languages in daily life.
    In addition of national language in Indonesia, there is also known as international and local language. International language is used around the world as international business, technology, science, and academy. Then, Local language is used in homes and marketplaces of a community to differ from a national or international language.
    English becomes one of an international language. It is learnt in some schools as obligates subject that has been made the national exam in Indoneia. Besides that, English is also a requirement to apply for colleges in domestic and abroad. Therefore, English is a popular language in domestic society.
    Prof. Dadang Sunendar is head of the development agency for language development of the ministry of culture education said;in 2017, Indonesia has 652 kinds of local languages.[2] Buginese language is one of them that includes local language is used in South Sulawesi. It has large speakers which are 2.500.000 people that spread in some places such as Bone,

    Soppeng, Wajo, Sinjai, Pare-pare, Pangkep, Barru, Bulukumba, and Maros.[3] It is also made one of language that taught in those regions.
    People, who are in the hinterland in South Sulawesi, get the difficulty to learn English because there are several reasons. The first, many people do not understand other languages expect Buginese in speech. It is caused that they always use Buginese then national language in their area. Second, inadequate education also becomes the factor of the difficulty to learn English. Third, the finances are insufficient to get a decent education especially English subject that only learnt in formal schools.
    In learning, many learners from Buginese make possible errors in forming simple sentences. The example is mtiRondi (Matinroi Nadi) which in English is Nadi sleeps, but for students who do not understand how a simple sentence formation will say "sleeps Nadi" because they consider the word sleepsas a synonym of mtiRo (Matinro) in Buginese. The example shows that English and Buginese have different ways of forming sentences. These differences will make it difficult for them who study the languages.
    The researcher is interested to discuss in this paper on the contrastive analysis of sentence structure in English and Buginese, the discussion is expected to find aspects of the differences between two languages. English and Buginese teachers make the comparison results as a basic for analysis in predicating the difficulties faced by students and preparing the material that will be presented to the students who are studying the language. Foreigners who come to South Sulawesi for learning the cultures use this paper to know the local language.

    B.       Problem Statement
    Based on the limitation of the background, the researcher formulated the problem as follows:
    1.    How are the forms of sentence structure in English and Buginese?
    2.    What are the differences between sentence structure in English and Buginese?
    C.       Operational Definition
    There are some terms in the title of this research, they are as follow:
    -          Contrastive is showing the differences between two things.[4]
    -          Study is the activity of examining a subject in detail order to discover new information.[5]
    -          Sentence is a group of words that express a statement, question, and exclamation, while the structure is an arrangement or organization; the way in which parts are formed into a whole.[6]
    -          English is language that is spoken in the Unite Kingdom, the United States, and many other countries.[7]
    -          Buginese is derived language by tribe of Bugis in South Sulawesi.[8]
    After showing the terms of the title above, it can be understood that this research compared English and Buginese to know the different forms of sentence both of the languages.  
    D.      Objective and Significant of the Research
    Considering the formulation of the problem statement, the objectives of the paper are arranged as follows:
    1.      To explain the sentence structure form in English and Buginese.
    2.      To describe the differences between sentence structure in English and Buginese.
    The significances of the research are expected:
    1.      Theoretically, the result of the study is expected to be useful to know the differences of sentence structure in English and Buginese.
    2.      Practically, the research is expected to be one of the sources of knowledge and information to all people related. They are:
    a.       Significant for the learners
    This research will help the language learners who are studying English and Buginese, to know the sentence elements both languages.
    b.      Significant for the teachers
    This research can help the English and Buginese teachers to apply these languages by comparing each other, especially the students who could not understand the Indonesian well in the village.
    E.       Previous Related  Research Finding
    Many researchers had reported comparison languages to make it easy to be learned by students, some researchers’ findings are cited concisely below:
    Fitrotul Ainurrohman in her research “Kalimat Perbandingan Dalam Bahasa Arab Dan Bahasa Inggris Serta Metode Pengajaran (Perspective Analysis Contrastive)” in 2013, the result of the research has shown some results:a). The structures of Arabic and English sentence have the same form of the comparative sentence; positive, comparative, and superlative. However, in Arabic, the comparison of positive does not use Isim tafdil, but using tasybiah. b). The suitable methods for the teaching of comparative sentence consume Parcial Approach by using the operational method; dual-language method and grammar-translation method.[9]
    Prof. Dr. Asem Shehadeh Ali in his researchThe Verbal System of Malay and Arabic: Contrastive Analysis” in 2013, the result of the research has shown the differences between two languages are in the subject of present tense, future, verb agreement, and passive voice and active voice.[10]
    Ikhwan Fadhila Fitri in his research “Contrastive Study of Sentence Structure between English and Arabic” in 2015, the result of the research has shown that there are similarities and differences between sentence structure in English and Arabic, such as the similarity both English and Arabic get a change in the verb form. The difference of the predicate in Arabic can be Isim and Fi’il/verb while in English, it is only a verb.[11]
    Bahram Kazemian & Somayyeh Hashemi in their research “A Contrastive Linguistic Analysis of Inflectional Bound Morphemes of English, Azerbaijani, and Persian Languages: A Comparative Study” in 2014, the result of the research is The results reveal that there are more variations in inflections in Azerbaijani than English or Persian; they share several common properties and some inequalities. English and Persian represent irregularities in terms of plurality for nouns and affixation for verbs; Azeri combines many inflections into each category as well. The difference is the main source of difficulty for native Azeri or Persian speakers to learn English and vice versa.[12]
    Andi Fatimah Yunus in her research: “Analisis Kontrastif Bahasa Bugis dan Bahasa Indonesia dalam Bidang Morfologi” in 2016, the result of the research has indicated some results:[13]
    a.         The differences form of morpheme in Buginese and Indonesian contain in free morphome : Buginese morphome ends with vowels except “e”, while consonants do not end free morphomes except “ng and q (glottal)”. Indonesian morpheme are ended by all of vowels and consonant except “q and x, b used by prefix and suffix”.
    b.        The clitification patterns of differences Buginese and indonesian are found in traditional proclitic uses na- and ta-.
    c.         The differences in reduplication patterns in Buginese and Indonesian are found in partial reduplication and reduplication impact.
    d.        The differences in compounding both of two languages, Buginese whose first element consists of several basic words  and the second element in the form of a compounded word that begins with ma-.
    Firotul Ainurrohman, Prof. Dr. Asem Shehadeh Ali, and Ikhwan Fadhila Fitri compared English and Arbic also used descriptive analysis, Bahram Kazemian & Somayyeh Hashemi compare infectional bound morphemes in three langauges, and Andi Fatimah Yunusalso compared morphology in Buginese and Indonesian, while my reserach compares English and Buginese.

    F.        Conceptual Framework
    The researcher formulated the conceptual framework which was needed before doing research for reaching the goals of the research.

    Sentence Structure



    Supporting Elements

    Buginese Sentence Structure

    English Sentence Structure

    The conceptual framework of the research was begun from sentence structure by flattening the sentencestructure of English and Buginese and identifying the supporting elements both of the two languages to know the difference of those languages.
    G.           Methodology of the Research
    1.      Research Method
    In this method, the researcher applied the library research because the data used in completing research came from available literature. The main focus in this literature research was to provide an understanding of the differences about the sentence structure of English and Buginese. This study used qualitative approach design that included the series of systematic activities to answer the problem of the proposed research.
    2.      Data and Source of Data
    The method that researcher used in this study was the library method. So, the researcher used :
    a.       The primary data was used to collect information by book, article, and journal.
    b.      The secondary data was utilized to receive information by people how are experts from each of these languages.
    3.      Procedure of Collecting Data
    The first, the researcher searched the data on English and Buginese from various sources available from both articles, books, journals, and expersts. Then, continuing to analyze the datas that had been collected. The final stage was to classify the two languages as identifying the differences of the sentence structure English and Buginese.
    4.      Technique of Data Analysis
    The sentence structure of English and Buginese was analyzed by descriptive techniques and content analysis. The  descriptive technique was intended to provide a real description of the syntactic forms of those languages. The analysis was begun by identifying then classifying the both languanges structures that had been collected. The last step was done by determining the differences of English and Buginese sentence structure.

    Sentence structure is formed from certain elements, starting with the smallest things up to complete sentence. In this study, researcher will present the elements that are classified as making sentences starting from syntax, sentence, clause, phrase, and word.
    A.       Syntax
    In linguistics, syntax comes from Ancient Greek that means “arrangement”. It is combination between “together” and “an ordering”.[14] Syntax refers to the rules that assembles the words to be phrases, clauses, and sentences. Based on limitation, knowable that sentence is a biggest unit in syntax and every language has syntax rule aloof that can not just like that applied in other language.[15]
    Syntax is the study about word combination patterns to form sentence. Based on that opinion, it is perceivable that contains of three main aspects in syntax, those are word as smallest element, sentence as biggest element, and patterns as the sentence arrangement rule.
    As part of linguistics, syntax contributes to students to know the components necessitated in the formation of sentences. Just like sentence structure that possesses different components in each arrangement. In Buginese sentence, mEedai ndi (meddei Nadi) has different sentence patterns with Nadi goes in English. The difference between two sentences lies in the positions S and V. Therefore, it is important for students to know the role of syntax in language.

    From the limitations that are proposed by linguists, we can state that syntax is a part of grammar that has the character of word combinations become grammatical unit that larger ones in the form of phrase, clause, and sentence. On the other hand, syntax is a grammar branch that talks about sentence structures, clauses, and phrases. Syntax is concerned with the way are combined to form sentences. Syntax deals with the way words combine to form sentences.
    B.       Sentence
    A sentence is the unit that spans from the beginning capital letter and concluded by full stop.[16] In writing, a capital letter is always used to commence a sentence, and has form subject (S), predicate (P), and surceases full stop: end mark (.), interrogative mark (?), and exclamatory mark (!). The sentence has many forms: simple sentence, compound sentence, complex sentence, and compound and complex sentence.
    The sentence consists of 5 elements namely: subject, predicate, object, complement, and adverb. Some of them usually exist in every formation.[17]
    1.      Subject
    A subject is the sentence or clause part or that commonly indicates what it is about or who or what performs the action. It is also called the principal of sentence.
    2.      Predicate
    The predicate is the sentence or clause part that expressed by the subject. Usually, the use of predicates depends on languages. Some languages have a different form about the predicate because many languages have a different form.
    3.      Object
    An object is where an action of the verb that affects a noun, pronoun, noun phrase, preposition phrase, and noun clause.
    4.      Complement
    Complement is the part of the sentence that focuses on explaining or completing a subject or object. 
    5.      Adverb
    The functions of an adverb in the sentence are to the description and occur for showing the time, place, and manner.
    The researcher will show the sentence of each language:
    1.      English Sentence
    In English sentence, there are some classifications, namely:
    a.    In purpose, sentences are classified as declarative, interrogative, command and exclamation sentences.[18]
    1)        A declarative sentence is a sentence that states imperative and statements sentence, and usually used in positive as well as negative sentence.
    The example:
    My brother will come tomorrow.
    2)        An interrogative sentence is a sentence that used to created question and can be made more one way.
    a)    Yes, No question (the Auxiliary or Helping verb is placed before the subject.)
    The example:
    ·      Do you speak Buginese?
    ·      Can you take my book?

    b)   The sentence begins with an interrogative word.
    The example:
    ·         Who speaks Buginese?
    ·         What can I take for you?
    3)        An imperative sentence is sentences that include the sentence of the petition and pray.
    The example:
    ·         Please help me!
    ·         Don’t be lazy!
    4)        Exclamatory sentence is a sentence expressing exclamation or spontaneous speech of wonder, amazement, shock, and sadness. The example:
    ·      How beautiful she is!
    ·      What nice house you have!
    b.    Based on the structure, sentences are classified into three parts.[19]
    1)        The first part is a simple sentence that has one independent clause and no subordinate clauses. It has only one subject and one verb.
    The example:
    ·      She came to my home.
    ·      She invited me to walk around.
    2)        The second part is a compound sentence that has two or more independent clauses but no subordinate clauses.
    The example:
    ·      She came to my home and invited me to walk around.
    ·      The cat hunts the mice and eats them.
    3)        The third is a complex sentence that has one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause.
    The example:
    ·         After she took bath, she came to my home.
    ·         Anto types the letter when his mother sweeps the floor.
    4)        The fourth is a compound-complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause.
    The example:
    ·         After she took bath, she came to my home and invited me to walk around.
    ·         When the seller passed in front of my house, I took money and called him to stop in.
    c.    The sentence has form of active voice and passive voice.[20]
    1)      Active voice is the sentence that the subject is doing action work or deed.
    The example:
    ·         My father takes my book.
    ·         Biah loves them.
    2)      Passive voice is a sentence in which the subject is subjected to work of action or deed.
    The example:
    ·         My book is taken by my father.
    ·         The printer was fixed.

    d.      According to its predicate, sentences are classified as nominal and verbal.[21]
    1)        Nominal sentence is a sentence of which predicate is to be.
    The example:          
    ·         Jane is my sister.
    ·         Your books are in my bag.
    2)        Verbal sentence is a sentence of which predicate is a verb. The predicate shows an activity in the sentence.
    The example:          
    ·         We go to school every day.
    ·         They played football last week.
    2.      Buginese Sentence
    In Buginese sentence, there are some classifications as positive and negative, the sentence bases on the number and type of clause, the sentence bases on actor-pivot, and the sentence bases on the type of response.[22]
    a.    Sentence bases on the presence or absence of a negative element.
    1)      The positive sentence is a sentence that does not contain a negative element or denial.
    The example:
    ·         aEKn esw   aEso, nlao mtEb aju ri wiri sloea.
    Engkana seuwa esso, nalao matebbang aju ri wiring saloe.
    (One day, he went to cut down wood in the river.)
    ·         mjmai bia ri NEC.
    Majamai Biah ri NEC.
    (Biah works in NEC).
    2)      A negative sentence is marked negative element or denial by using ed (dék) or tnia (tania).
    The example:
    ·         tnia auwesmu aiaea auwes aulwEEeG.
    Taniauwasému iaé uwasé ulawengngé
    (This gold ax is not yours.)
    ·         ed mumlEPu pd peR ajuea.
    Dék mumalempu pada panré ajué.
    (You are not as honest as the carpenter.)
    b.      The sentence bases on the numbers and types of the clause.
    1)      A single sentence is a sentence that consists of an independent clause and there is not the dependent clause, but contains the information.
    The example:
    bco mkit-kit ri aw bolea.
    Baco Makita-kitari awa bolae.
    (Baco looks around under the house.)
    2)      A complex sentence is a sentence that has one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.
    The example:
    aj munp lri tsiaPo nerko mEKliGko sd.
    Ajak munappa lari tassiampo narékko méngkalingako sadda.
    (Do not run around when you hear a sound.)
    3)      A compound sentence is a sentence that formed by two or more independent clauses.
    The example:
    tElu  tauG  mmusu cpu  tEtrku  n kplku.
    Tellu taungngak mammusu cappu tentaraku na kappalaku.
    (I warred for 3 years, my soldiers and warships were shattered.)
    c.       The sentence bases on actor-pivot.
    When viewed in terms of the nature of the relationship of actors, the sentence can be distinguished into two kinds. The two types of the sentence are:
    1)      An active sentence can be classified as an active sentence if the element that serves as the subject acts as an actor. The act is expressed by the element that serves as a predicate. It is divided into active transitive and passive transitive.
    The example:
    ·         lndi mtEb aju wEni riaolo.
    La Nadi mattebang aju wenni riolo.
    (Nadi cut the wood last night.)
    ·         mtiRoai aRin  aibEdu nmEdu no ritnea.
    Matinroi anrinna Ibeddu namedduk no ritanaẻ.
    (Beddu’s sister slept and fell to the ground.)
    2)      A passive sentence is the sentence that the subject of passive acts as the object.
    The example:
    ·         po kluku ntEb l ndi.
    Pong kaluku natebbang La Nadi.
    (Coconut tree is cut by Nadi.)
    ·         bo arukisE naEli l bia ri psea.
    Bo’ arukiseng naelli la Biah ri pasae.
    (the written book is bought by Biah in the market)
    d.      The sentence based on types of response.
    Response sentence is the response of the person who is invited to speak or the second person. This sentence is divides into three parts.
    1)      Ada Kareba (news sentence) is a sentence whose contents provide an event or a state.
    The example:
    mkuaniro apoelGEn nerko tomkutu-kutu msikol.
    Makkuaniro apoléngenna narékko tomakkutu-kuttu massikolah.
    (That is the source if we are lazy to go to school.)
    2)      Ada Pakkutana (interrogative sentence) is sentence that used to ask someone in society.
    The example:
    nig asE riaeln kjao llido?
    Niga aseng rialéna Kajao Laliddong?
    (What is Kajao Laliddong’s personal name?)
    3)      Ada Passuro (imperative sentence) is a sentence that contains someone’s command to other.
    The example:
    bukai tGEea.
    Bukkai tangee’!
    (You are first!)

    C.       Clause
    Clause is usually defined as group of the words containing a subject and a verb.[23] The clause is usually used in complex or compound sentence.
    The kinds of clauses:[24]
    1.      English clause
    The English clause has two parts. They are called independent clause and dependent clause. Although both of them stand subject and predicate, not all of clauses can express a complete thought. Independent clause could be written as separate sentences and it can stand by itself. The clause that can separate itself is dependent clause.
    a.         Independent clause (IC) is a main clause that has clear meaning, and can stand by itself without other clause.
    The example:
    ·         My brother is teaching English.
    ·         The flowers is watered by Asbiah.
    b.        Dependent clause (DC) is one which is not complete sentence but which performs a single function in sentence. It has three kinds of clause. They are noun clause, adjective clause, and adverb clause.
    1)      Noun clause is as its name implies a noun clause function as noun. It can be a subject, object, and object of preposition.
    a)      As subject
    Whose man is teaching English is my brother.
    b)      As object
    I do not know whose pen that Beddu is using.

    c)      As object of preposition
    I am afraid of what you hold.
    2)      Adjective clause is a clause that functioned as adjective which explains noun and pronoun.
    The examples:
    ·         I have read the book that you just took. 
    ·         The book that she reads is very good.
    3)      Adverb Clause is clause that used as adverb, and explain verb.
    The example:
    ·         He went when I took bath.
    ·         When you arrive tomorrow, I will pick you up.
    The explanation above, dependent clause can be seen that its unclear meaning when puts in sentences without independent clause.
    2.      Clause in Buginese
    Buginese clauses are classified into three sections:
    a.       Klausa Nomina (noun clause) is clause that nomina (noun) predicate.
    The example:
    boln l ndi bol aju.
    Bolana La Nadi bola aju.
    (Nadi’s house is a wooden house.)
    b.      Klausa Verba (verbal clause) is phrase that the predicate as verba (verb).
    The example:
    spuni nlir-lir tn boen.
    Sappuni nalirak-lirak tana Bone.
    (Bone area has been explored entirely.)
    c.       Klausa Numera (numeral clause) is phrase that the predicate as adjectiva (adjective).
    The example:
    dua boln l ndi.
    Duabolana la Nadi.
    (Nadi has two houses.)
    D.      Phrase
    Phrase is the combination of the words that hasmeaning, not form subject and predicate. [25] In syntax, phrase may be described in terms of the kinds or classes of word arranged relative to each other.[26] So it means, phrase is a group of words or single word that forms element and so function as a single unit in the syntax of a sentence.
    1.      Phrases in English
    The ordinary phrase in English has five phrases, they are noun phrase (NP), verb phrase (VP), adjective phrase (AP), adverb phrase (AVP), and prepositional phrase (PP).
    a.       Noun phrase is composed potentially in three parts of noun phrase. The first part is head that is obligatory in this phrase. The second is pre-modifier and sometimes followed by the third part is post-modifier.
    The example:
    ·         The old car at home is mind.
    ·         The lovely girl that sits on the grass helped me yesterday.
    b.      In verb phrase all the elements are verb of kind or another. The verb phrase contains one ordinary verb as a head and also may have four auxiliary verbs, beside negative word not as modifier. The ordinary verb always in the last element is verb phrase.
    The example:
    ·         Your book may not have been being taken by my mother.
    ·         She will come here tomorrow.
    c.       As the name suggest, adjective phrase has as its head adjective. As with noun phrase and verb phrase may be both pre-modifier and post modifier. In adjective phrase, pre-modifier may be by adverb (adverb of degree: rather, very..ect). The post- modifier in adjective phrase is always called complement of the adjective.
    The example:
    ·         My friend is very enthusiasticabout his latest idea.
    ·         So generous man is my father.
    d.      Adverb phrase also has as its head is adverb. In this phrase, only pre-modifier is found and post modifier is not used in this post-modifier. Especially pre-modifier, adverb becomes to modifier itself.
    The example:
    ·         He walks very quickly.
    ·         That is often enough beautiful.
    e.       Prepositional phrase is unlike any of other types of phrases. It does not own head, pre-modifier, and post-modifier. The preposition is always in front of the phrase and the siting of words after preposition possesses the object of preposition that is noun, pronoun, noun phrase, and noun clause. 
    The example:
    ·         My brother sits on the chair that I bought last year.
    ·         The book on the tableis taken by my friend.

    2.      Phrases in Buginese
    In Buginese, the Buginese phrase has the immediate element that serves as head, attribute, and mark. The Phrase is divided into phrase endocentric construction and phrase exocentric construction.[27]
    a.       Phrase endocentric construction has same function as any or all of direct elements. According the nature of the relationship between the direct elements of taste can be classified between phrase subtype endocentric construction attribute, subtype of endocentric contraction, and subtype phenotype of appositive endocentric construction.
    1)      Phrase subtype attributive endocentric construction of its elemental element has the same function and one of the direct elements. One of which function as core or center while the other elements serve as attributes.
    The example:
    ·         an kod earo.
    Anak koda ẻro (nakoda itu)
    (The captain)
    ·         tuli ml.
    Tuli mala
    (Always take)
    The phrase above, the researcher concludes thatphrase subtype endocentric construction attribute may precede attribute element or otherwise.
    2)      Phrase subtype of coordinated endocentric construction, direct elements own the same function, its immediate elements serve as head or center. The form of this phrase can be nomina and nomina (noun and noun), verba and verba (verb and verb), adjectiva and adjectva (adjective and adjective), and numaralia and numaralia (number and number). The combination of the elements can be form by konjunsi (conjunction) or not.
    The example:
    ·         etdo sibw ebeb.
    Tédong sibawa bémbék
    (Buffalo and goat)
    ·         mlopon mteR.
    Malloppo namatanré
    (Big and tall)
    ·         jop yerg lri.
    Joppa yaréga lari
    (Walk or run)
    3)      Phrase subtype construction of appositive endocentricconstruction is classified into two direct elements that serve as principal and amplifier. The element that serves as the principle amplifier both are the core elements of the phrase.
    The example:
    ·         pua  pun  lkain  pua  sumir.
    Puang Punna lakkainna Puang Sumira.
    (Mr. Punna is Mrs. Sumira’s husband.)
    ·         ndi aEpon pua bet.
    Nadi ẻppona Puang Batte.
    (Nadi is Mr. Batte‘s grandchild.)
    b.      Phrase exocentric construction
    In Buginese language, the phrase is difference then phrase endocentric construction because this type does not have acore and attributive. However, the direct element uses functioned as directive and axis. Based on its directive, it is distinguished on the preposisional (prepositional) and kunjuktif (conjunction) directive.
    1)      Preposition directive
    The example:
    aoai bpku ri sloea
    Laoi bapakku ri saloe
    (My father is in river)
    2)      Conjunction directive
    The example:
    nerko ritEbGi aju earo
    Narẻko ritebbangngi aju ẻro
    (If the wood is cut down)
    E.     Word
    The traditional ways for analyzing the sentence was known as parsing or identifying the sentence.[28] The word classes play an important role in this case. The word is single unit of language that has meaning and can be spoken and written.[29]
    1.      Word in English
    The English word classes can be referred to the part of speech. It divides into two types, they are open classes and close classes. These terms refer to the member of the classes.[30]
    a.       Open classes are noun, verb, adjective, and adverb.
    1)      Noun is used to name the objects either concrete or abstract.
    ·         Abstract Noun = air, love, voice, mind
    ·         Concrete Noun = book, school, home, sugar
    2)     Verb is the word that indicates existence of an activity and condition.
    ·         Activity  = take, sing, eat, drink
    ·         Condition = understand, think, love, realise
    3)      Adjective is the word used to describe and limits the noun and pronouns.
    The example:
    - Honest                         - Small                         - Black
    - Good                            - Cold                          - Indonesian
    4)      Adverb is a word that used to describe verb, adjective, other adverb, and whole the sentence.
    The example:
    - So                              - Fluently                     -Very              
    - Everywhere               - Here                          - Suddenly
    b.      Close classes are pronoun, numeral, determiner, preposition, and conjunction.
    1)      Pronoun is word that used to replace the noun.
    The example:
    - I                          - She                            - Each other
    - You                    - We                            - Someone
    2)      Numeral has two types. They are ordinal and cardinal.
    The example:
    ·         Ordinal   = first, second, third, fourth, and so on.
    ·         Cardinal             = one, two, three, four etc.
    3)      Determiner is the class of the words that are used with noun and has function of defining the reference of the noun the some way. The class divides into board groups. They are identifier and quantifier.
    a)      Identifier includes the members of article, possessive adjective, demonstrative adjective.
    The example:
    ·         Article                               : A - An – The
    ·         Possesive Adjective          : My - Your - Their - Our
    ·         Demosntrative Adjective : This - That - These - Those 
    b)      Quantifier includes indefinite pronoun.
    The example:
    - Few                           - Several
    - Lot of                        - So on
    4)     Preposition is word placed before noun, pronoun, noun phrase, noun clause.
    The example:
    - On                      - Of                             - In                 
    - For                      - At                              - Above
    5)      Conjunction is word used to connect between words, phrases, and sentences.
    The example:
    - And                    - Nor                            - But
    - Or                       - For                            - Yet
    2.      Word in Buginese
    The word in Buginese language can be divided as nomina (noun), verba (verb), adjectiva (adjective), and function word.[31]

    a.       Nomina(noun) is word to name the things.
    The example:
    - piso                                                 - glu
    Piso (knife)                                       Galung (rice field)
    - bol                                      - aes
    Bola (house/home)                            Ase (rice)
    b.      Pronomina(pronoun) is the word that refers to nomina. The function of pronomina can be sat as subject, object.
    The example:
    - aia                                                   - aidi
    Iyak  (I)                                         Idi (you)
    -  aiaro                                              - aiatu
    Iyaro (That)                                  Iyatu (This)
    -  ag                                                   - nig / aig
    Aga (What)                                   Niga/Iga (Who/Whom)
    c.       Verba (verb) is word that expresses action or deed.
    The example:
    - lao                                       -mguru
    Lao (go)                                            Magguru (study)
    - ml                                                    - tud
    Mala (take)                                        Tudang (sit)
    d.      Adjectiva (adjective) is a word that states the state of an object.
    The example:
    - mpcE                                              - mridi
    Mapacẻ (good)                                  Maridi (yellow)
    - mpci                                                - mloto
    Mapaccing (clean)                             Malotong (black)
    e.       Numeralia(numeral) is a word that is used to stating number and ladder the things which are  people, animals and all things that becomes countable. Numaralia has two kinds, that are cardinal number and ordinal number.
    The example
    ·         Cardinal number : 
    -  nolo (nolo)                         - esdi (seddi),
    -  dua (dua)                                       - tElupulo (telluppulo)
    -  sirtu (siratu)                                   -  etc.
    ·         Ordinal number :
    -  pmuln (pammulanna)                   
    - mduam (madduana)
    -  mlimpulon(mallimappulona)        
    - msirtun esdi (massiratuna seddi), ect.
    f.       Function word is all the word that belongs to a class of secondary words. They are divided into word classes thatstand alone.
    The example:
    - br                                                  - gK
    Bara (so that)                                  Gangka (to)
    - tko                                                - aiakia / naiakia
    Takko (suddenly)                            Iakia/naiakia (but)
    - kp
    Kapang (perhaps)

    A.     The Form of Sentence Structure in English and Buginese
    In each sentence structure consists of series words to build the perfect meaning. That also possesses the general form known as subject + predicate and ended by punctuation mark. The specific forms of English and Buginese will be explained soon.
    Before discussing more about the forms of English and Buginese, the researcher is going to review a bit about the elements of sentence that exist in previous chapter. The basic elements of sentence are subject and predicate, and it is usually equipped with other elements such as object, description and complement.
    1.      Thesentence elements in English and Buginese
    a.       Subject
    1)      English
    Ø  Noun
    - Rinahunts her dog.
    rinnepepGi asun.
    Rina napeppengi asunna.
    -  The coffe is delicious.
    mNmEGi kopiea.
    Mayamengngi kopie.
    Ø  Pronoun                      
    - Someone looked for you yesterday.
    nspki tauea dEwEini.
    Nasappakitaue dewenni.

    - She is my sister.
    aeln pdkuRaiku.
    Ø  Noun Phrase
    - My mother will go to the market.
    ealoai lok aEmku ri psea.
    Eloi lokka emmaku ri pasae.
    - The bag is on the table.
    aEKai tsEaE riasEn emjeG.
    Engkai tase’e riasenna mejange.
    Ø  Noun Clause
    - The coffee grows in  Brasil is well known to all.
    aiaro kopi tuaoea ri bErsilE naisE mnE tauea.
    Iaro kopi tuoe ri Brasil naisseng maneg   taue
    - What he said is true.
    ag npau aiaro tauea coco mnE.
    Aga napau iaro taue coco maneng.
    2)   Buginese
    Ø  Nomina (Noun)
    -enenku pdK.
    Nenekku padangkang
    My grandmother is marketer.
    -  meR ebp to mtoaea.
    Mannre beppa to matoae.
    The old man eats cake.

    Ø  Pronomina (Pronoun) 
    -aeln guruku
    Alena gurukku
    She is my teacher.
    - aiy an sikol.
    Iya ana sikola.
    I am a student.
    Ø  Frasa Nomina (Noun Phrase)
    - motoro bru n pek aRiku.
    Motoro baru na pake anriku.
    The new motorcycle is riden by my young sister.
    - pao ts  naiet ndi.
    Pao tasa naitte Nadi.
    The ripe mango is taken by Nadi.
    Ø  Klausa Nomina (Noun Clause)
    - suruji bpn sudi lao ri bolku.
    Suruji bapakna Sudi lao ri bolaku.
    Suruji is Sudi’s father goes to my home.
    - bol aju nkEbuea deaku liw gElo.
    Bola aju nakkebue daengku liwa gello.
    My brother made the wood home is very good.
    b.      Predicate
    1)      In English
    Ø  Verb
    -My wife is clever.
    baienku mc.
    Baineku macca.
    - I buy something to eat
    mElik ag-ag mealok meRai.
    Mellika aga-aga maeloka manrei.
    2)      In Buginese
    Ø  Adjectiva (Adjective)
    - mcino auwearo.
    Macinnonguwae ero.
    The water is clear.
    - sugi sEn tomtoaku.
    Sugi senna tamatoakku.
    My parents are so rich.
    Ø  Nomina (Noun)
    - aboku polisi.
    Ambokku polisi.
    My father is police.
    -aiaro doePku.
    Iaro dompeku.
    That is my wallet.
    Ø  Verba (Verb)
    - meRai bel emaoeGro.
    Manrei bale meong ero.
    The cat eatsa fish.
    - mtiwiki auti enen earo
    Mattiwiki utti nenek ero.
    The grandmother bringsthe banana.

    Ø  Numeralia (Numeral)
    - duabw bolku.
    Dua bawang bolaku.
    I only have two houses.
    - ecdi bw lopiku.
    Ceddi bawang lopikku.
    I only have one boat.
    c.         Object
    1)      In English
    Ø  Noun
    -  My mother is cooking rice.
    aEmku mnsu neR.
    Emmaku mannasu nannre.
    -  I have boiled the water.
    Purk mnsu auwea.
    Puraka mannasu uwae.
    Ø  Pronoun
    -  My brother will meet someone.
    mealoai sirutu pdaoroaenku sibw tauea.
    Maeloi sirunntu padaoroaneku sibawa taue.
    -  I love her.
    mpojik riaeln.
    Mappojika rialena.
    Ø  Noun Phrase   
    -  I like his sister.
     mpojik lao ri aRin.
    Mappojika lao ri anrinna.

    -  Ana borrows my new book.
    naiREGi bo bruku an.
    Nainrengi bo’ baru ku Ana.
    Ø  Noun clause
    -  I know the coffee grows in Brazil.
    aiy auwisE kopiearo tuaoai ri bersilE.
    Iyak uwisseng kopiero tuoi ri Brazil.
    -   I do not know how he will get the money.
    ed auwisEGi mg crn nauel rutu doai.
    Dek uwissengngi maga carana naulle runntu doi.
    2)      In Buginese
    Ø  Nomina (Noun)
    -          emao lElu belsu.
    Meong lellung balesu.
    Cat hounds the mouse.
    -          ed nainu kopi l timusu.
     Dek nainung kopi La Timusu.
    La Timusu does not drink the coffee.
    Ø  Fasa Nomina (Noun Phrase)   
    -          ndi mdoro motoro.
    Nadi ma ddoro motoro.
    Nadi washesthe the motorcycle.
    -          aEmku mEli bju kemj.
    Emmaku melli baju kameja.
    My mother buys shirt.

    Ø  Klausa nomina (Noun Clause)
    -          ppertea btuai dua tau ksiasi mbli bola.
    Papparentae bantui dua tau kasiasi mabbali bola.
    The goverment helps two poormanwho are neighbors.
    -          ed auwisEGi mg crn btuai tau tlEpoea.
    Dek uwissenggi maga carana bantui tau tallepoe.
    I do not know how to help that has got an accident.
    d.      Complement
    1)      In English  
    Ø  Adjective
    -          She feels happy.
    msEnGi mkuRaiea.
    Masennangi makkunraie
    -          The pencil is blue
    mgwu potoloearo.
    Magawu potoloero.
    Ø  Adjective Phrase
    -          She appears very beautiful.
    aiaro mkuRaiea mbElo ldE.
    Iaro makkunraie mabello laddek.
    -          mgrEt bpku.
    Magaretta bapakku.
    My father looks very handsome.
    Ø  Noun   
    -          You turn liar.
    tEtE motoki pbEel.
    Tette motokki pabbelleng.
    -          You are best.
    aidi mop jgo.
    Idi’ mopa jago.
    Ø  Noun Phrase   
    -          Your daughterbecomes a big girl.
    anmu mcji an dr loponi.
    Annamu mancaji anak dara lopponi.
    -          My aunt is a widow.
    jd mopi amuerku.
    Janda mopi amureku.
    Ø  Adverb
    -          Icong are here.
    aEKai aico koeN.
    Engkai Icong konye.
    -          She is there.
    aEKa aiaro koRo.
    Engkai iaro konro.
    2)      In Buginese
    Ø  Nomina (Noun)
    -          aiaro riasE bol aju.
    Iaro riaseg bola aju.
    That is wood house.
    -         wErE mcpi neR.
    Were mancaji nanre.
    Rice becomes a rice.

    Ø  Adjectiva (Adjective)
    -          bjun audi mric.
    Bajunna udding marica.
    Udding’s clothes are wet.
    -          kopiea mrs mpai.
    Kopie marasa mapai.
    The coffee tastes bitter.
    e.       Adverb
    1)      In English
    Ø  Adverb
    -          My brother studieshard.
    mtoGE-toGEGi mguru pd aoroaenku.
    Matongeng-tongenggimagguru pada oroaneku.
    -          Yesterday, I met someone special.
    dEwEni, sirutuk sibw tau mlEbiea.
    Deweni, sirunntuka sibawa tau malebbie.
    Ø  Prepositional Phrase
    -          I read the book in my room.
    mbck bo-bo di eptku.
    Mabbacaka bo’-bo’ di peta’ku.
    -          My sister is buying a book in the book store.
    mEliki bobo an drku di pblu bo-boea.
    Melliki bo’bo’ ana darakku di pabbalu bo’-bo’e.
    2)      In Buginese
    Ø  Adverbial(Adverb)
    -          aiwEni, lokai aEmku ml aju.
    Iwenni, lokkai emmaku mala aju.
    Last night, my mother went to take a wood.
    -          bpku troai bo-boea ri boln.
    Bapaku taroi bo’-bo’e  ri bolana.
    My father puts the book in his house.
    2.      The forms of sentence structure in English and Buginese
    a.       English[32]

    Subject + Verb + Adverb

    -          I am in NEC.
    aia ri NEC.
    Iak ri NEC.
    -          I walked yesterday.
    jopk aia dEwEni.
    Joppaka iak dewenni.

    Subject + Verb + Complement

    -          He proves wrong
    aiaro tauea tbuti sl.
    Iyaro taue tabbuti sala.
    -          The song sounds perfectly.
    mpcE riaKliG ealoeG.
    Mapace riangkalinga elonge.

    Subject + Verb + Object

    -          The cat’s mother leaves her children.
    aidon emaoeG newlaiki ann.
    Indona meonge nawelaiki anana.

    -          The boss believed the employers.
    Pogwea ntEpEri pjmn.
    Ponggawae natepperi pajjamana.

    Subject + Verb + Object + Adverb.

    -          Tara kept the water in her bag.
    tr mtro auwea rinu ri tsEn.
    Tara mattaro uwae rinung ri tasena.
    -          Fitra draws the motorcyle on canvas.
    pitEr mgbr motoro ri rERieG.
    Fitra maggambara motoro ri renringe.

    Subject + Verb + Object + Complement.

    -          The dog made me shocked.
    asuearo tiwik tkini.
    Asuero tiwika takkini
    -          She sees her brother lazy.
    aiaro mkuRaiea naitai aRin mklsi.
    Iaro makkunraie naitai anrina makalasi.

    Subject + Verb + Object + Object.

    -          Ifah gives me a doll.
    aip nerk dto-dto.
    Ifah narek ka dato-dato.
    -          I promised a cake to my students.
    ku jci an guruku ebp.
    Ku janci anak guruku beppa.


    Subject + Verb.

    -          They run.
    lri mnEGi.
    Lari manengi.
    -          I agree.
    situju k.
    Situju ka.
    b.      Buginese

    Predicate + Subject.

    -          mtiRoai enenku.
    Matinnroi neneku.
    My grandmother sleeps.
    -          mgluGi amuerku.
    Maggalungi amureku.
    My ucle farms.

    Subject + Predicate.

    -          aia an psikol.
    Iak ana passikola.
    I am a student.
    -          dy pglu.
    Daya paggalung.
    Daya is farmer.

    Subject + Predicate + Object.

    -          anku mtikE bel bolu.
    Anaku mattikkeng bale bolu.
    My son catches the fish.

    -          sudi mprk aoto.
    Sudi mapparaka oto.
    Sudifixes the car.

    Predicate + Object +Subject.

    -          mlai ebp bpku.
    Malai beppa bapakku.
    My father took the cake.
    -          meRai auti guruku.
    Manrei utti gurukku.
    My teacher eats the banana.

    Predicate + Object + Subject + Adverb.

    -          mtub auti aboku ri drEea.
    Mattubbang utti amboku ri dare’e.
    My father hew the banana in the garden.
    -          minuGi kopi l bEdu riaolo bolea.
    Minungi kopi la Beddu riolo bolae.
    Beddu drinks coffee in front of the house.
    B.     The Differences between Sentence Structure in English and Buginese
    The diffrence of sentence structure in English and Buginese that can be seen below.
    1.      Pattern
    The first differences both the languages come from the pattern. In English owns7 patterns while there are 5 patterns of Buginese.Here are the patterns:

    1. Subject + Verb + Adverb.
    1. Predicate + Subject.
    2. Subject + Verb + Complement.
    2. Subject + Predicate.
    3. Subject + Verb + Object
    3. Subject + Predicate + Object.
    4. Subject + Verb + Object + Adverb.
    4. Predicate + Object +Subject.
    5. Subject + Verb + Object
    5. Predicate + Object + Subject
    + Adverb.
    6. Subject + Verb + Object + Object.

    7. Subject + Verb.

    2.      Helping Predicate
    Both the languages are distinguished by helping predicate. Buginese does not possess any helping predicate but in English is known as auxilary verb.
    The example:
    Ø  In English
    ·         La Timusu does not drink a coffee.
    ·         The tree is cut by La Sallomo.
    Ø  In Buginese
    ·         ed nainu kopi l timusu.
    Dek nainung kopi La Timusu.
    ·         Po kluku ntEb l slomo.
    Pong kaluku natebbang La Sallomo.
    3.      Changing Predicate
    The changing predicate only applies in English setences which is based on the tenses. However, it does not occur in Buginese because the predicate is not affected by the tenses.
    The example :           
    Ø  In English
    ·         Mr. Amir buys the book.
    ·         Mr. Amir bought the book  yesterday.
    Ø  In Buginese
    ·         Pua joen mEli bo.
    Puang Amir melli bo’.
    ·         Pua joen mEli bo dEwEni.
    Puang Amir melli bo’ dewenni.
    4.      Subject Verb Agreement
    The next contrast comes from subject verb agreement. The sentence of English and Buginese gets the different change in the form of singular and plural.
    The example:
    Ø  In English :       
    ·         Joni takes my book.
    ·         My parents take my book.
    Ø  In Buginese :     
    ·         joni mlai boku.
    Joni malai bo’ku.
    ·         duaea to mtuaku mlai boku.
    Duae to matoakku malai bo’ku.

    A.     Conclusion
    English owns 7 patterns while there are 5 patterns of Buginese. Here are the patterns:
    1. Subject + Verb + Adverb.
    1. Predicate + Subject.
    2. Subject + Verb + Complement.
    2. Subject + Predicate.
    3. Subject + Verb + Object
    3. Subject + Predicate + Object.
    4. Subject + Verb + Object + Adverb.
    4. Predicate + Object +Subject.
    5. Subject + Verb + Object
    5. Predicate + Object + Subject
    + Adverb.
    6. Subject + Verb + Object + Object.

    7. Subject + Verb.

    English and Bugineseconsist of some supporting elements todetermine where the words are in sentence structure.
    The differences between sentence structure in English and Buginese have four differences.
    1.      In the pattern of sentences, English has Subject + Perdicate + (Object)and Buginese has Subject + Predicate + (Object)and Predicate + (Object) + Subject.
    2.      The helping predicate of English is auxiliary verb and Buginese does not have any helping verb.
    3.      In English sentence, the predicate always changes because of the tenses and differs from Buginese sentense that does not change anymore.
    4.      The subject verb agreementof English will change based on the singular or plural subject, while Buginese will not change.

    B.     Suggestion
    1.         The researcher realizes that there are some weaknesses on this paper so the readers or the students who want to study about sentence structure of English and Buginese are suggested to read some other references as the comparison of this because it requires a special attention to improve the understanding about these sentence structures.
    2.         The researcher hopes that there will be more complete discussions about sentence structure of English and Buginese to fulfill all weaknesses on this paper.

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    Rahmat Isnadi is the last child of 6 siblings from marriage of Suruji and Sumira. He was born in Mare, 3rd November 1994. He started learning in 2000 till 2006 in the elementary school of 377 Tallongeng but at the second grade, he moved in Inpres 5/81 Kadai because he could not pass in 377 Tallongeng. The next study was in Madrasah Tsanawiyah Mare in 2006 to 2009. When he was 15 years old, he went to Kolaka, North Sulawesi to school in Islamic boarding school of Darul Istiqomah Mala-Mala but at the second grade, he stoped his study and backed to Mare, South Sulawesi. However, in 2012, he joined the C package exam of PKBM Nabila Fatwah in Telluasiattinge, Bone regency.
    When he was 19 years old, he registered in State College of Islamic Studies of (STAIN) Watampone and took English study program of Tarbiyah. He graduated as undergraduate degree in 2018.
    He had practiced and improved his English by joining some sources, as follows: New Generation Course (NGC), Smart English Course, and Grace English Home. In 2014, he went to Kampoeng Inggris Pare, Kediri regency of Java, and spent his time for 6 months for improving his study. After going to Pare, he built a course and it is known as New English Course (NEC) on Jln. Hos Cokroaminoto.


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    [17] Fuad Mas’ud, Essentials of English Grammar, A Practical Guide (Ed. III; Yogyakarta: BPFE-Yogyakarta,  2005),  p. 1.
    [18]Faud mafas’ud, Essentials of English Grammar, p. 7-11.
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    [28]Howard Jackson, Analyzing English, p. 60.
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    [30]Howard Jackson, Analyzing English, p. 61.
    [31] Muhammad Sikki, et. al. Tata Bahasa Buginese, p. 90.
    [32]Randolph Quirk and Sidney Greenbaum,  A University Grammar of English, (England: Longman Group.ltd, 1973), p.167.

    Mr. Nadi Nama lengkap dari Mr. Nadi adalah Rahmat Isnadi. Iya merupakan aulumni Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris IAIN Bone. Ia lahir pada 03 Nevember 1994. sekarang mengajar di tempat Kursus New English Course NEC.

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